Specific criticisms of the WHO sc h eme have focused on the fact that it remains close to medical classifications of disease disability --l h a ndicap In so doing it conserves the notion of im pai rm en t as abnormality in function, di sabil i ty as not being able to pe rform an. Simi l ar criticism can be made of the OPCS schemes, in that they fail to recognise the inHuences of sub-cultures, g ender or ethnicity on the idea of normality.
The Jewish community had about 14, members. IslamBuddhismand the Baha'i Faith were also represented. Amerindians still practice an indigenous religion involving shamanism. Traditionally, the Roman Catholic Church has held a privileged status in the country.
Inhowever, a new law on religion, ley de culto, was adopted to allow non-Catholic churches certain rights and permissions. For instance, churches are allowed to set up affiliate organizations, such as schools and clubs, without establishing them as separate, independent corporations.
Under the law, non-Catholic religious groups leaders are permitted to have chaplains in public hospitals, prisons, and military units. However, a report indicated that implementation of these laws had been somewhat lax and there were complaints of discrimination against non-Catholics in military and political employment.
Rail lines in the desert area are used mainly for mineral transport. In the periodcargo transportation by rail averaged 1. There are five international railroads from Chile: Inthe first section of a new subway was opened in Santiago; the second section was opened in There were 79, km 49, mi of roads in11, km 6, mi of which were paved.
In there were 1, passenger cars andcommercial trucks, buses, and taxis. Chile has some 20 ports, 10 of which are used principally for coastal shipping.
Inthe Chilean merchant marine had 47 vessels over 1, tons and a total GRT ofAir transportation has become increasingly important. As of there were an estimated airports in Chile, 72 of which had paved runways as of Santiago hosts the principal international airport, Arturo Merino.
Chile's largest airline is the state-owned National Airlines of Chile LAN-Chilewhich provides both domestic and international service. Inairlines carried 5.
Araucanian Amerindians, who came under the influence of the Incas in the early 15th century, inhabited central and southern Chile. The Araucanians resisted Spanish rule and killed Valdivia in battle.
The Araucanians also known as Mapuches today were not subjugated until the early s. During Spanish rule, Chile was subject to the viceroyalty of Peru. Later, the territory was given the status of captaincy-general and was largely administered from Santiago.
Chile had one of Latin America 's first independence movements.
A cabildo abierto town meeting declared independence in in response to the French usurpation of the Spanish crown. In Chile formally proclaimed independence. O'Higgins ruled from toduring which time he built a navy and consolidated the Chilean government under his dictatorial regime.
However, his anticlerical and anti-nobility policies proved to be his undoing. The next few years saw the growth of two political parties, the Conservative and the Liberal. While both were narrow elite factions, they differed in that Liberals favored a parliamentary, secular, federal system, while Conservatives wanted a traditional, religious, centralized system.
The two groups fought bitterly, plunging Chile into civil strife until when Conservative Diego Portales assumed control of the political system. Portales ruled as behind-the-scenes dictator from until his assassination in He launched a successful three-year war with Peru —39which destroyed a threatening Bolivian-Peruvian confederation.
He also initiated a Conservative rule, which was to last until During that period, Chile's territory expanded with new claims to Patagonia and the island of Tierra del Fuegoand inthe founding of Punta Arenas on the Strait of Magellan. Between andthe Conservatives were forced to share power with the Liberals, who had won several legislative victories.
A wave of liberal reforms curtailed the power of the Roman Catholic Church and the presidential office. At the same time, both parties suffered a series of splits and realignments. But most notable during this period was Chile's greatest military achievement. In the War of the Pacific —83Chile again fought Peru and Bolivia, this time over possession of the Atacama Desert and its nitrate deposits.
After victories on land and sea, Chilean forces entered Lima in The disposition of the other contested areas, Tacna and Arica, was not finally settled untilwhen, with US mediation, Tacna went to Peru and Arica to Chile.Democracy without citizens: media and the decay of American politics / Robert M.
Entman. En83d Brothers and sisters of retarded children: an exploratory study. GB essays toward a sustainable society / edited by Andrew Dobson ; foreword by David Gancher.
Essay The Greenwich Association for Retarded Citizens (G.A.R.C.) of Greenwich High The Greenwich Association for Retarded Citizens (G.A.R.C.) of Greenwich High is a group of students interested in interacting with disabled students.
These students go to the high school as well, and look forward to getting to know us. MARJORIE WELISH's books include The Windows Flew Open from Burning Deck Press, The Annotated "Here" and Selected Poems (selected as a finalist for the Lenore Marshall Poetry Prize) from Coffee House Press, Begetting Textile from Equipage, and a book of art criticism, Signifying Art: Essays on Art after from Cambridge University Press.
Michael Oliver in Disability Studies University of Greenwich Reader pal grave macmillan * ''' 1'1ichael Oliver All right •es.e1 vei.l.
No reproduction, copy or transmission of this public tion rnay be made without written permission. Coyle was a running columnist for New York Runner and the New York Daily News, and a member of Millrose Athletic Association.
He died on August 3 at age Anyway the book is a collection of short essays written by a group of people - in your book stores in weeks! NYCM Focus: Jeff Schiebler of New Westminster, B.C., who is training fo.
PGP didn't become standard e-mail fare outside of the community of geeks, cypherpunks and those with special privacy needs, like human rights workers and people living in countries where the government routinely spies on its citizens without oversight.
Fortunately for Zimmerman, there are a .