As animal studies keep on increasing, we find out that some animals are close to our level of thinking. Animals such as chimps, parrots, elephants, dolphins and monkeys have been studied and proved to us that they too have a good level of intelligence. Self recognition, social skills, language skills and the use of tools are all signs that scientist use to prove that these animals have a good capacity of smarts in their brain. Many people may think that only humans have the ability to recognize themselves or to be recognized.
Animal cognition The common chimpanzee can use tools. This chimpanzee is using a stick to get food. Although humans have been the primary focus of intelligence researchers, scientists have also attempted to investigate animal intelligence, or more broadly, animal cognition. These researchers are interested in studying both mental ability in a particular speciesand comparing abilities between species.
They study various measures of problem solving, as well as numerical and verbal reasoning abilities. Some challenges in this area are defining intelligence so that it has the same meaning across species e. Stanley Coren's book, The Intelligence of Dogs is a notable book on the topic of dog intelligence.
Non-human animals particularly noted and studied for their intelligence include chimpanzeesbonobos notably the language-using Kanzi and other great apesdolphinselephants and to some extent parrotsrats and ravens.
Cephalopod intelligence also provides important comparative study. Cephalopods appear to exhibit characteristics of significant intelligence, yet their nervous systems differ radically from those of backboned animals. Vertebrates such as mammalsbirdsreptiles and fish have shown a fairly high degree of intellect that varies according to each species.
The same is true with arthropods. The general factor of intelligence, or g factoris a psychometric construct that summarizes the correlations observed between an individual's scores on a wide range of cognitive abilities.
First described in humansthe g factor has since been identified in a number of non-human species. Instead, intelligence is measured using a variety of interactive and observational tools focusing on innovationhabit reversal, social learningand responses to novelty.
Plant intelligence It has been argued that plants should also be classified as intelligent based on their ability to sense and model external and internal environments and adjust their morphologyphysiology and phenotype accordingly to ensure self-preservation and reproduction.
If this is accepted as definitive of intelligence, then it includes the artificial intelligence of robots capable of "machine learning", but excludes those purely autonomic sense-reaction responses that can be observed in many plants.
Plants are not limited to automated sensory-motor responses, however, they are capable of discriminating positive and negative experiences and of 'learning' registering memories from their past experiences.
They are also capable of communication, accurately computing their circumstances, using sophisticated cost—benefit analysis and taking tightly controlled actions to mitigate and control the diverse environmental stressors.
Artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence or AI is both the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science which aims to create it, through "the study and design of intelligent agents "  or "rational agents", where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions which maximize its chances of success.
Among the traits that researchers hope machines will exhibit are reasoningknowledgeplanninglearningcommunicationperceptionand the ability to move and to manipulate objects.click here Energy and Human Evolution by David Price.
Please address correspondence to Dr. Price, Carpenter Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY THE TOWER OF BABEL AND THE CONFUSION OF LANGUAGES. by Lambert Dolphin. The building of the Tower of Babel and the Confusion of Tongues (languages) in ancient Babylon is mentioned rather briefly in Genesis Chapters 10 and Denny’s, Red Robin, and Johnny Rockets all offer mouthwatering vegan burgers.
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The term Animal intelligence is currently used in three distinct but overlapping ways: as a synonym for animal cognition, to pose the question “are animals intelligent?”, or to denote a discussion of relative levels of intelligence in different animal species.
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