Notes Acknowledgments The ideas for this book come from the theoretical and practical work I have been doing for the last ten years. None of that work has been done alone. As a result, the list of people to whom I am indebted makes Oscar night acknowledgments look haiku-terse by comparison. Here I can mention only a few.
As educators, it is important for us to understand why students reverse letters and to provide parents with the best information possible. In our system, learning to read is based on the alphabetic principle. This means that a child must understand that letters have sounds that make words when combined together.
There are 26 letters of the alphabet and letters consist of a series of sticks, circles and curves that when combined in different ways, make different letters. Each of the 26 letters has an uppercase and a lowercase letter. Sometimes the letters look similar and sometimes they look very different.
Sometimes letters look very different depending upon if they are handwritten or typed. Even typed letters look different depending upon the font. There are certain letters that have the same stick, circles and curves, but if you switch the direction, they are different letters with different sounds.
Well, then each letter has a sound. Wait-not so simple-some letters have two sounds. The sound that is used depends upon the position it is in the word and the other letters around it.
When you think about it, it is amazing that most of our young children learn to read relatively easily.
Such techniques have helped us understand the nature of learning to read as well as differences that are present in people who struggle with reading. Based on these and other studies, what we know about reading has strong scientific basis.
With the large majority of children, the issue is with language processing at the phoneme sound level and not a problem with visual processing. Backwards writing and letter reversals are very common in the early stages of writing. When children reverse letters, it is a sign that orthographic representation forming letters and spelling is not fully developed.
Addressing Reversals Although reversals are common in kindergarten, first and second grades, students who continue to reverse letters past second grade should receive targeted intervention. A screening by an Occupational Therapist may be helpful at this point.
There are several strategies that can help cue students, regardless of age, that can be used.
Over-teach one of the letters before introducing the other. Use multi-sensory materials while teaching the letter s. Making and tracing the letters using playdoh, wikki sticks, shaving cream, hair gel in a baggie, yarn, puffy or glitter glue will help.
Use visual cues to cue correct letter formation. Reversal Cue Cards for Student Desks Another strategy that one of our reading teachers shared is using mouth formation as a cue.
With any child who struggles to learn to read, it is important that vision is tested. Dyslexia is a term most commonly used by the medical profession, researchers and clinicians.
Reading abilities exist on a continuum. It is certainly possible that a student may have an outside diagnosis of dyslexia; however, not qualify for special education services in the school.Home Education, Volume 1 of the Charlotte Mason Series. Preface Part 1 Some Preliminary Considerations I.
A Method Of Education II. The Child's Estate. Abstract. Until quite recently, computer-assisted language learning (CALL) was a topic of relevance mostly to those with a special interest in that area. Writing numbers backwards shouldn’t affect your son’s ability to do math.
The numbers he uses are correct. many times before he’s able to consistently form them the correct way. Get and give answers in the Understood Community. It’s a safe place to connect with parents and experts.
Crossing the Leo-Cancer Boundary. In the March issue of Sky & Telescope (S&T) E. C. Krupp crossed the boundary between Leo and Cancer. Krupp writes a monthly column for the magazine titled "rambling through the skies," in which he tells anecdotal stories about the current views of the night sky.
Non-Western (or at least non-English) models. Looking at some non-Indo-European languages, such as Quechua (see my intro to Quechua here), Chinese, Turkish, Arabic, or Swahili, can be eye-opening.. Learn other languages, if you can. 11 The origin of language is the origin of god by Yoseph Lanyadoo.
When God, the head light entity among other light entities created matter from light and thought, followed it by DNA language and wrote complex programs that created life he became God.