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We Defining key terms dissertation restorative justice as a subset of restorative practices.
Restorative justice is reactive, consisting of formal or informal responses to crime and other wrongdoing after it occurs. Where social capital—a network of relationships—is already well established, it is easier to respond effectively to wrongdoing and restore social order—as well as to create a healthy and positive organizational environment.
The social science of restorative practices offers a common thread to tie together theory, research and practice in diverse fields such as education, counseling, criminal justice, social work and organizational management. For example, in criminal justice, restorative circles and restorative conferences allow victims, offenders and their respective family members and friends to come together to explore how everyone has been affected by an offense and, when possible, to decide how to repair the harm and meet their own needs McCold, In social work, family group decision-making FGDM or family group conferencing FGC processes empower extended families to meet privately, without professionals in the room, to make a plan to protect children in their own families from further violence and neglect or to avoid residential placement outside their own homes American Humane Association, In education, circles and groups provide opportunities for students to share their feelings, build relationships and solve problems, and when there is wrongdoing, to play an active role in addressing the wrong and making things right Riestenberg, These various fields employ different terms, all of which fall Defining key terms dissertation the rubric of restorative practices: The social science of restorative practices recognizes all of these perspectives and incorporates them into its scope.
History Restorative practices has its roots in restorative justice, a way of looking at criminal justice that emphasizes repairing the harm done to people and relationships rather than only punishing offenders Zehr, In the modern context, restorative justice originated in the s as mediation or reconciliation between victims and offenders.
In Mark Yantzi, a probation officer, arranged for two teenagers to meet directly with their victims following a vandalism spree and agree to restitution. The positive response by the victims led to the first victim-offender reconciliation program, in Kitchener, Ontario, Canada, with the support of the Mennonite Central Committee and collaboration with the local probation department McCold, ; Peachey, Conferencing addresses power imbalances between the victim and offender by including additional supporters McCold, It was originally envisioned as a family empowerment process, not as restorative justice Doolan, The IIRP now calls that adaptation, which has spread around the world, a restorative conference.
In the newly created IIRP broadened its training to informal and proactive restorative practices, in addition to formal restorative conferencing Wachtel, Use of restorative practices is now spreading worldwide, in education, criminal justice, social work, counseling, youth services, workplace and faith community applications Wachtel, Supporting Framework The IIRP has identified several concepts that it views as most helpful in explaining and understanding restorative practices.
Put these concepts into practice with our Basic Restorative Practices event 4. Social Discipline Window The social discipline window Figure 1 is a concept with broad application in many settings. It describes four basic approaches to maintaining social norms and behavioral boundaries.
The four are represented as different combinations of high or low control and high or low support. The restorative domain combines both high control and high support and is characterized by doing things with people, rather than to them or for them.
Social Discipline Window The social discipline window also defines restorative practices as a leadership model for parents in families, teachers in classrooms, administrators and managers in organizations, police and social workers in communities and judges and officials in government.
The social discipline window, whose dynamics of low versus high support and control were originally modelled by the work of University of Illinois corrections researcher Daniel Glaser, reflects the seminal thinking of renowned Australian criminologist John Braithwaite, who has asserted that reliance on punishment as a social regulator is problematic because it shames and stigmatizes wrongdoers, pushes them into a negative societal subculture and fails to change their behavior Glaser, ; Braithwaite, Restorative Justice Typology Restorative justice is a process involving the primary stakeholders in determining how best to repair the harm done by an offense.
The three primary stakeholders in restorative justice are victims, offenders and their communities of care, whose needs are, respectively, obtaining reparation, taking responsibility and achieving reconciliation. The degree to which all three are involved in meaningful emotional exchange and decision making is the degree to which any form of social discipline approaches being fully restorative.
The three primary stakeholders are represented in Figure 2 by the three overlapping circles. Restorative Justice Typology When criminal justice practices involve only one group of primary stakeholders, as in the case of governmental financial compensation for victims or meaningful community service work assigned to offenders, the process can only be called partly restorative.
When a process such as victim-offender mediation includes two principal stakeholders but excludes their communities of care, the process is mostly restorative. Restorative Practices Continuum Restorative practices are not limited to formal processes, such as restorative conferences or family group conferences, but range from informal to formal.
Impromptu restorative conferences, groups and circles are somewhat more structured but do not require the elaborate preparation needed for formal conferences. Moving from left to right on the continuum, as restorative practices become more formal, they involve more people, require more planning and time, and are more structured and complete.
Restorative Practices Continuum The aim of restorative practices is to develop community and to manage conflict and tensions by repairing harm and building relationships.
This statement identifies both proactive building relationships and developing community and reactive repairing harm and restoring relationships approaches. Organizations and services that only use the reactive without building the social capital beforehand are less successful than those that also employ the proactive Davey, Nine Affects Figure 4.
The Nine Affects adapted from Nathanson, The most critical function of restorative practices is restoring and building relationships. Because informal and formal restorative processes foster the expression of affect or emotion, they also foster emotional bonds.
The late Silvan S. Donald Nathanson, former director of the Silvan S. Tomkins Institute, added that it is through the mutual exchange of expressed affect that we build community, creating the emotional bonds that tie us all together Nathanson, Restorative practices such as conferences and circles provide a safe environment for people to express and exchange emotion Nathanson, Digital Impact LLC produces large format, high-resolution, semi-permanent corrugated/mixed material POP & POS displays, product packaging and specialized permanent displays for companies of all backgrounds.
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