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November 19, iStock. But for those who prefer their bird be a main course that can stand on its own without accoutrements, brining is an essential prep step—despite the fact that it requires finding enough room in the fridges to immerse a pound animal in gallons of salt water for days on end.
To legions of brining believers, the resulting moist bird is worth the trouble. How, exactly, does a salty soak yield juicy meat? And what about all the claims from a contingency of dry brine enthusiasts: Will merely rubbing your bird with salt give better results than a wet plunge?
For a look at the science behind each process, we tracked down a couple of experts.
First, it's helpful to know why a cooked turkey might turn out dry to begin with. As David Yanisko, a culinary arts professor at the State University of New York at Cobleskilltells Mental Floss, "Meat is basically made of bundles of muscle fibers wrapped in more muscle fibers.
As they cook, they squeeze together and force moisture out," as if you were wringing a wet sock. Hence the incredibly simple equation: And since the converse is also true, this is where brining comes in.
Your basic brine consists of salt dissolved in water. How much salt doesn't much matter for the moistening process; its quantity only makes your meat and drippings more or less salty. When you immerse your turkey in brine—Ryan Cox, an animal science professor at the University of Minnesotaquaintly calls it a "pickling cover"—you start a process called diffusion.
In diffusion, salt moves from the place of its highest concentration to the place where it's less concentrated: Salt is an ionic compound—its sodium molecules have a positive charge and its chloride molecules have a negative charge, but they stick together anyway.
As the brine penetrates the bird, those salt molecules meet both positively and negatively charged protein molecules in the meat, causing the meat proteins to scatter.
Their rearrangement "makes more space between the muscle fibers," Cox tells Mental Floss.
There's a catch, though. Brined turkey may be moist, but it can also taste bland—infusing it with salt water is still introducing, well, water, which is a serious flavor diluter. This is where we cue the dry briners. They claim that using salt without water both adds moisture and enhances flavor: Some salt penetrates the meat as it sits—with both dry and wet brining, Cox says this happens at a rate of about 1 inch per week.
But in this process, the salt is effective mostly because of osmosis, and that magic occurs in the oven. The liquid mixes with the salt, both get absorbed or reabsorbed into the turkey and, just as with wet brining, the salt disperses the proteins to make more room for the liquid.
Only this time the liquid is meat juices instead of water. Moistness and flavor ensue. Cox also prefers wet brining, but he supplements it with the advanced, expert's addition of injecting some of the solution right into the turkey for what he calls "good dispersal.
Both pros also say tossing some sugar into your brine can help balance flavors—but don't bother with other spices. Because no brine can save an overcooked turkey.The greatest geek who ever lived had more than just science on the brain.
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