Endowment 75 The integer associated with each variable indicates the average absolute position change each school experienced during testing when that variable was held constant. This sensitivity effect also works in reverse.
Housing tenure, household amenities, housing characteristics, broken window index, social standing of the habitat Overcrowding Calculated as the number of persons living in the household per number of rooms available in the house usually excluding kitchen and bathrooms Composite indicators At individual usually measured as a score that adds up the presence or absence of several SEP indicators or at area level Proxy indicators These are not strictly indicators of SEP but they can be strongly correlated with SEP and when more appropriate information is not available they may be useful in describing social patterning.
Some cases may provide insight into the mechanism that explains the underlying association of SEP and a particular health outcome.
However, they may be associated with the health outcome through independent mechanisms not related to their correlation with SEP aAlso known as British Occupational-based Social Class. Taken directly from Galobardes et al. Absolute versus relative social position The second, related question deals with whether absolute or relative 36 position matters for health.
This is particularly important when considering poverty, which can be defined in an absolute sense by comparing a given income to a static benchmark, or in a relative sense by comparing a given income to the overall distribution of incomes in a population Absolute poverty definitions rely on a fixed monetary threshold called a poverty line, though this threshold in generally specific to year, country, and household size.
Those with incomes falling below the threshold are considered impoverished. On the other hand, relative poverty is defined by comparing a given income to the distribution of income in a population.
Among other distinctions between the two ways of defining poverty, it is important to note that a relative poverty definition may classify a greater proportion of a population as impoverished, especially in countries with high levels of income inequality 3.
Notions of absolute versus relative poverty highlight that measures of income can be both objective and subjective. Whether someone feels wealthy or poor in relation to his neighbors is a subjective measure of wealth.
By this logic, the health of an individual whose income stays constant should remain unchanged as those around him become wealthier. The absolute income hypothesis ignores the fact that as society becomes wealthier, the material goods needed to fully participate in society can change.
Goods such as cars, phones, and computers are now more important than ever to accomplish tasks such as getting to work or accessing health care. As a result, those with static incomes in a changing society may fall behind, potentially suffering psychological distress and stress-related health effects from being unable to keep up with average standards of consumption 3.
The relative income hypothesis, which considers subjective measures of wealth, has the advantage of considering psychosocial pathways linking income to health; though testing the hypothesis requires making assumptions about how individuals compare themselves to others.
For example, do low-income families feel socially excluded only when other low-income families begin earning more, or do the rising income of celebrities matter as well 3? It is also possible that relative income matters through other mechanisms as well, with income distribution affecting the ways in which businesses and governments invest in serving the poor Studies that focus on overall income distribution as a determinant of health often use a statistic called the Gini coefficient 39which summarizes income inequality, to help predict outcomes.
As noted briefly earlier, while the differentiation of relative versus absolute position is particularly relevant when social groups are defined by income, this concept extends to other ordered stratification variables that measure the extent to which individuals are falling behind others around them.
These variables may be alternative constructs for measuring access to resources in the place of income, poverty, or wealth measures.
For example, Townsend created an index that took account of diet, clothing, housing, work, recreation, and education, among other factors, to measure deprivation in the UK This approach to creating a multidimensional poverty measure has also been utilized to better understand deprivation in the developing country context The distinction between absolute and relative position also matters outside the realm of material or economic deprivation.
For example, researchers have examined the impact of winning an Academy Award on all-cause mortality among nominated movie stars in order to investigate whether relative differences in social status mattered for the health of individuals who all uniformly enjoyed high absolute levels of prestige and social status Interest in relative measures of SES, broadly speaking, has grown alongside research arguing that inequality itself harms health Multilevel modeling techniques 44 that allow us to disentangle the influence of individual characteristics from those of higher level structures have also been instrumental in advancing this stream of research into inequality as an independent health risk factor.
Differentiating the concepts of space and place helps us to better understand the different ways in which geography can affect health For example, air pollution that exacerbates asthma symptoms would be an example of a health risk that is distributed across space.
Proximity to landfills, crime clusters, and health clinics are other examples of spatially patterned health risks and protective factors.
In contrast, place refers to membership in political or administrative units, such as school districts, cities, or states. Many government run programs and policies that affect health, such as food assistance programs or tax policies, are specific to administrative units and operate uniformly within their boundaries.
Concepts of space and place are often treated as exchangeable, and it is easy to see why. Political and administrative units are geographically defined such that people in the same place are often also very close together in space.-Unequal distribution of healthcare by race-ethnicity, social class, or gender -Unequal distribution of health care by region -Inadequate health education of inner city and rural parents.
The Health Gap: The Challenge of an Unequal World [Michael Marmot] on urbanagricultureinitiative.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. In this groundbreaking book, Michael Marmot, president of the World Medical Association, reveals social injustice to be the greatest threat to global health In Baltimore's inner-city neighborhood of Upton/Druid Heights.
Governments - Corporations Government is a collective group of people that are involved in decision-making that's in the best interest of a country, state or city.
Responsibilities include providing safety for its citizens, providing the needs of its citizens. Making laws and . Jun 24, · An unequal distribution of physical health risks and resources across geographies and social groups contributes to social inequalities in health via material pathways.
A second class of explanation points to psychosocial (62) factors as driving health inequalities and social group differences in health in particular.
How social class affects health March 10, pm EDT The unequal distribution of power, money and resources also creates health inequities. the “social determinants of health.
This entry presents the evidence on global economic inequality. It considers economic history and how global inequality has changed and is predicted to continue changing in the future.