See Article History Alternative Titles: The term Palestine has been associated variously and sometimes controversially with this small region, which some have asserted also includes Jordan. Both the geographic area designated by the name and the political status of it have changed over the course of some three millennia. The region or at least a part of it is also known as the Holy Land and is held sacred among JewsChristiansand Muslims.
The status of the believer in Islam remained in practice a juridical question, not a matter for theologians or philosophers to decide. Except in regard to the fundamental questions of the existence of God, Islamic revelationand future reward and punishment, the juridical conditions for declaring someone an unbeliever or beyond the pale of Islam were so demanding as to make it almost impossible to make a valid declaration of this sort about a professing Muslim.
In the course of events in Islamic history, representatives of certain theological movements, who happened to be jurists and who succeeded in converting rulers to their cause, made those rulers declare in favour of their movements and even encouraged them to persecute their opponents.
Thus there arose in some localities and periods a semblance of an official, or orthodoxdoctrine.
Together with these other disciplinesIslamic theology is concerned with ascertaining the facts and context of the Islamic revelation and with understanding its meaning and implications as to what Muslims should believe and do after the revelation had ceased and the Islamic community had to chart its own way.
It remained true to its original traditional and religious point of view, confined itself within the limits of the Islamic revelation, and assumed that these limits as it understood them were identical with the limits of truth.
The Hellenistic legacy The pre-Islamic and non-Islamic legacy with which early Islamic theology came into contact included almost all the religious thought that had survived and was being defended or disputed in EgyptSyriaIranand India. At first, access to this legacy was primarily through conversations and disputations with such men, rather than through full and accurate translations of sacred texts or theological and philosophic writings, although some translations from Pahlavi a Middle Persian dialectSyriacand Greek must also have been available.
The characteristic approach of early Islamic theology to non-Muslim literature was through oral disputations, the starting points of which were the statements presented or defended orally by the opponents.
Oral disputation continued to be used in theology for centuries, and most theological writings reproduce or imitate that form. From such oral and written disputations, writers on religions and sects collected much of their information about non-Muslim sects.
Much of Hellenistic post-3rd-century-bce Greek culturalIranian, and Indian religious thought was thus encountered in an informal and indirect manner.
From the 9th century onward, theologians had access to an increasingly larger body of translated texts, but by then they had taken most of their basic positions. By this time Islamic theology had coined a vast number of technical terms, and theologians e.
The 9th-century translators availed themselves of these advances to meet the needs of patrons. Theology and sectarianism Despite the notion of a unified and consolidated community, as taught by the Prophet Muhammad, serious differences arose within the Muslim community immediately after his death.
According to the Sunni s—the traditionalist faction whose followers now constitute the majority branch of Islam—the Prophet had designated no successor. Thus, the Muslims at Medina decided to elect a chief. His preference was general knowledge. In other words, good works were an integral part of faith and not extraneous to it.
They incessantly resorted to rebellion and, as a result, were virtually wiped out during the first two centuries of Islam. It forced the religious leadership of the community to formulate a bulwark against religious intolerance and fanaticism.
Are human acts the result of a free human choiceor are they predetermined by God? This question brought with it a whole series of questions about the nature of God and of human nature. As a consequence of translations of Greek philosophical and scientific works into Arabic during the 8th and 9th centuries and the controversies of Muslims with dualists e.
They claimed that human reasonindependent of revelation, was capable of discovering what is good and what is evil, although revelation corroborated the findings of reason. Human beings would, therefore, be under moral obligation to do the right even if there were no prophets and no divine revelation.Characteristics of Basic Religions.
STUDY. PLAY. Basic Religion. the religions of contemporary people whose ideas are not preserved in written form.
It also refers to the religions of prehistoric peoples. Primitive Religion. the religions and total culture of prehistoric people. It also refers to the current practices in pre-technological. Color. Color in plant material and hardscape adds interest and variety to the landscape.
Color is the most conspicuous element in the landscape and is usually the focus of most homeowners; however, it is also the most temporary element, usually lasting only a few weeks a year for individual plants. Characteristics of Religion Ethics is the practical application of belief.
Ethics and morality are about the way we behave as human persons. It is about our relationship with all of humanity. Schoolwear, Workwear, Sportswear, Promotional Products or Art Supplies make Mapac your first choice for Quality, Service, Efficiency and Price.
Jan 31, · Can these characteristics be found in culture or daily life where they are not usually identified as religious?Status: Resolved.
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