A Jewish mystical tradition with roots in Palestine during the 1st century CE and which developed during the 12th century. It uses occultic hidden knowledge to interpret the Torah. It is currently enjoying a surge in popularity. Muslim term for community leader.
Section 4, Parts Kongzi himself left no writings. Collections of aphorisms and anecdotes related to Kongzi, such as the Lunyu "Analects"were assembled by Kongzi's disciples after his death.
Neither the Lunyu nor other texts related to early Confucian thinkers were as important to Kongzi's followers as the Wujing "Five Classics" of Western Zhou originwhich traditionally are attributed to Kongzi as writer or editor.
It was these works of early Chinese literature that became the first canonical writings of the Confucian tradition in the 2nd century B. The Wujing did not attain their final form until Confucianism was adopted as the Han dynasty's official ideology and its most cherished texts became the basis of the civil service examination system that dominated official education in China for more than 2, years.
For early Confucians, the Yijing -- which originally was a manual of divination used by the Western Zhou court -- confirmed their view that human beings and the universe exist in a harmonious unity, which then allows events in one sphere e.
The Shijing was cherished for its many poetic depictions of unrequited love, which Confucians tended to interpret as allegories of the virtuous minister's longing for a sage ruler.
The Liji describes court rituals and other ceremonies that Confucians sought to rediscover and reenact as a way of restoring society to its lapsed virtue. Both the Shujing and the Chunqiu were read by Confucians not only as records of past events, but also as precedents and models for the present and the future.
All of these texts were based on Western Zhou writings, but all subsequently were edited and altered by Confucians, especially during the Han dynasty. From the Han dynasty until the Ming dynasty C. Probably beginning around the time of Kongzi's death, sayings attributed to him and recollections of his life were collected by various generations of his disciples and their followers, eventually producing the Lunyu by sometime during the Han dynasty although the greater part of the text no doubt is of much earlier origin.
The Lunyu is a highly varied work that contains depictions of the life and teachings not only of Kongzi, but also of his foremost followers. Some of these depictions are at odds with others, as in the narratives about Kongzi and his beloved disciple Yan Hui.
Some passages describe Yan Hui as first among Kongzi's students, while others downplay his status in the early Confucian community. Other examples of tensions in the text include how various passages describe Kongzi's primary concerns.
Some passages emphasize his teaching about ritual, others his love of literature, others his views of Tianand still others his ideas about government. Both the collection of so many different representations of Kongzi in one text and the subsequent canonical status of that text show that Confucians, like shapers of scripture in other traditions, have been able to harmonize these varying images of their master.
The process that produced the Lunyu was mirrored in the development of texts associated with Mengzi and Xunzi, as well as two other texts, the Zhongyong The Doctrine of the Mean and the Daxue The Great Learning. The Zhongyong traditionally is attributed to Kongzi's grandson Zisi, who supposedly taught Mengzi, and is concerned with the proper relations between people in a hierarchical society modeled after early Confucians' idealized view of the Western Zhou dynasty.
The Daxue traditionally is attributed to Kongzi's disciple Zengzi and is characterized by somewhat more mystical concerns than the Zhongyong, such as harmonizing oneself with the Tao by understanding its patterns both within and without oneself.
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Thus, Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormons, Roman Catholic, and members of the Unification Church are Christians. Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or urbanagricultureinitiative.comous texts may be used to provide meaning and purpose, evoke a deeper connection with the divine, convey religious truths, promote religious experience, .
Presbyterian and Reformed Churches both trace their heritage back to the 16th century C.E.
and the reformer John Calvin. Analects: Collective writings and sayings of the founder of Confucianism Confucius. The most followed and studied book through the religion. Great Learning: Was originally one chapter in the Book Of Rites. It consists of a text short in length that was contributed to Confucius, and nine other chapters written by Zeng Zi, one of Confucius's disciples.
Start studying Sacred Texts: Daoism, Confucianism, and Legalism. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Chu Hsi (), a major Neo-Confucian thinker, designated four texts as containing the central ideas of Confucian thought: two chapters from the Book of Rites, namely, the Great Learning, the Doctrine of the Mean; the Analects, and Mencius.